Collagen Derived from Fish Industry Waste: Progresses and Challenges
Fish collagen garnered significant academic and commercial focus in the last decades featuring prospective applications in a variety of health-related industries, including food, medicine, pharmaceutics, and cosmetics. Due to its distinct advantages over mammalian-based collagen, including the reduced zoonosis transmission risk, the absence of cultural-religious limitations, the cost-effectiveness of manufacturing process, and its superior bioavailability, the use of collagen derived from fish wastes (i.e., skin, scales) quickly expanded. Moreover, by-products are low cost and the need to minimize fish industry waste&rsquo;s environmental impact paved the way for the use of discards in the development of collagen-based products with remarkable added value. This review summarizes the recent advances in the valorization of fish industry wastes for the extraction of collagen used in several applications. Issues related to processing and characterization of collagen were presented. Moreover, an overview of the most relevant applications in food industry, nutraceutical, cosmetics, tissue engineering, and food packaging of the last three years was introduced. Lastly, the fish-collagen market and the open technological challenges to a reliable recovery and exploitation of this biopolymer were discussed.