Coffee Waste Macro-Particle Enhancement in Biopolymer Materials for Edible Packaging
Plastic pollution has raised interest in biodegradable and sustainable plastic alternatives. For edible food packaging, seaweed biopolymers have been studied for their film-forming properties. In this study, packaging films were developed using the solvent casting technique from natural red seaweed (Kappaphycus alvarezii) and coffee waste product. The physico-chemical and thermal properties of seaweed/coffee biopolymer films was obtained using dynamic light scattering (DLS), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Fourier transmission irradiation (FT-IR), water contact angle measurement (WCA) and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). The characterization study was carried out to improve the film&rsquo;s morphological, thermal, and mechanical properties. The average particle size of coffee waste was found to be between 1.106 and 1.281 &micro;m, with a zeta potential value of &minus;27.0 mV indicating the compound&rsquo;s strong negative charge. The SEM analysis revealed that the coffee filler was evenly dispersed in the polymer matrix, improving the film&rsquo;s structural properties. The FT-IR result shows that coffee waste was successfully incorporated over the film matrix with the presence of a N-H bond. The hydrophobic property of the film was enhanced with the incorporation of coffee filler, indicating increased water contact angle compared to the neat film. The tensile properties of the biopolymer film were significantly improved at 4 wt% coffee powder with optimum tensile strength (35.47 MPa) with the addition of coffee waste powder. The incorporation of coffee waste into the seaweed matrix increased the functional properties of the fabricated biopolymer film. Thus, seaweed/coffee biopolymer film has the potential to be used in food packaging and other applications.