Seasonal Changes in Chemical Profile and Antioxidant Activity of Padina pavonica Extracts and Their Application in the Development of Bioactive Chitosan/PLA Bilayer Film
Seaweeds are a potentially sustainable source of natural antioxidants that can be used in the food industry and possibly for the development of new sustainable packaging materials with the ability to extend the shelf-life of foods and reduce oxidation. With this in mind, the seasonal variations in the chemical composition and antioxidant activity of brown seaweed (Padina pavonica) extracts were investigated. The highest total phenolic content (TPC) and antioxidant activity (measured by ferric reducing/antioxidant power (FRAP), 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging, and oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC)) were found for P. pavonica June extract. The TPC of 26.69 &plusmn; 1.86 mg gallic acid equivalent/g, FRAP of 352.82 &plusmn; 15.41 &micro;mole Trolox equivalent (TE)/L, DPPH of 52.51 &plusmn; 2.81% inhibition, and ORAC of 76.45 &plusmn; 1.47 &micro;mole TE/L were detected. Therefore, this extract was chosen for the development of bioactive PLA bilayer film, along with chitosan. Primary or quaternary chitosan was used as the first layer on polylactic acid (PLA) films. A suspension of chitosan particles with entrapped P. pavonica extract was used as the second layer. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy confirmed the presence of layers on the material surface. The highest recorded antioxidant activity of the newly developed films was 63.82% inhibition. The developed functional films exhibited antifogging and antioxidant properties, showing the potential for application in the food industry.