A Comprehensive Study on Starch Nanoparticle Potential as a Reinforcing Material in Bioplastic
Starch can be found in the stems, roots, fruits, and seeds of plants such as sweet potato, cassava, corn, potato, and many more. In addition to its original form, starch can be modified by reducing its size. Starch nanoparticles have a small size and large active surface area, making them suitable for use as fillers or as a reinforcing material in bioplastics. The aim of reinforcing material is to improve the characteristics of bioplastics. This literature study aims to provide in-depth information on the potential use of starch nanoparticles as a reinforcing material in bioplastic packaging. This study also reviews starch size reduction methods including acid hydrolysis, nanoprecipitation, milling, and others; characteristics of the nano-starch particle; and methods to produce bioplastic and its characteristics. The use of starch nanoparticles as a reinforcing material can increase tensile strength, reduce water vapor and oxygen permeability, and increase the biodegradability of bioplastics. However, the use of starch nanoparticles as a reinforcing material for bioplastic packaging still encounters obstacles in its commercialization efforts, due to high production costs and ineffectiveness.