Extraction of cellulose nanocrystals from red banana peduncle agro?waste and application in environmentally friendly biocomposite film
The agricultural waste dumped onto the land is creating an environmental problem. The conversion of those easily available agro?wastes into value?added nano reinforcement materials for biopolymers is an alternative method of waste utilization and minimization. In the current study, the red banana peduncle (RBP) waste was used as a precursor in the extraction of carboxylated cellulose nanocrystals (CCNCs) by alkalization, acidified chlorination citric acid hydrolysis, as well as the assessment of its reinforcing capability in polyvinyl alcohol. The characterization of the extracted CCNCs is analyzed through electron microscopy, X?ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT?IR), and Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), respectively. The CCNCs exhibit a rod?like shape (235?±?20?nm length and 17.2?±?6 nm width) with a high crystallinity of 89.7%, a negative zeta potential (?48?mV), and good thermal resistivity against degradation up to 280?°C. Furthermore, the effects of CCNCs integration on the bionanocomposite films' tensile, optical, bio decomposition, and thermal behavior were examined. The bionanocomposite film with improved physical, functional, thermal and bio decomposition characteristics offers the possibility for active packaging applications.