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Biomarkers to Monitor Adherence to Gluten-Free Diet by Celiac Disease Patients: Gluten Immunogenic Peptides and Urinary miRNAs

Celiac disease (CD) is a multifactorial autoimmune enteropathy with a prevalence greater than 1% in the pediatric population. The only therapy for CD patients is a strict gluten-free diet (GFD). Gluten-free food contamination by other cereals during packaging and cooking or accidental ingestion of gluten may cause several intestinal and extraintestinal symptoms in CD patients. Therefore, the monitoring of gluten contamination in food and assessing the level of ingested gluten by analytical biomarkers has been of great interest in recent years. To this aim, small gluten immunogenic peptides (GIPs) obtained by the hydrolysis of gluten and present in urine and feces have been studied as biomarkers of gluten intake and to monitor adherence to GFD by CD patients. More recently, the use of circulating, fecal and urinary miRNAs has emerged as a novel diagnostic tool that can be potentially applied to assess adherence to GFD. Moreover, the presence of GIPs and miRNAs in both feces and urine suggests a similar excretion modality and the possibility of using urinary miRNAs, similarly to GIPs, as potential biomarkers of GFD in CD patients.

Publication date: 10/05/2022

Author: Alessandro Paolini

Reference: doi: 10.3390/foods11101380

MDPI (foods)


This project has received funding from the Bio Based Industries Joint Undertaking under the European Union’s Horizon 2020 research and innovation programme under grant agreement No 837761.