Nano-Strategies for Enhancing the Bioavailability of Tea Polyphenols: Preparation, Applications, and Challenges
Tea polyphenols (TPs) are among the most abundant functional compounds in tea. They exhibit strong antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and anti-cancer effects. However, their instability and low bioavailability limits their applications. Nanotechnology, which involves the use of nanoscale substances (sizes ranging from 1 to 100 nm) to improve the properties of substances, provides a solution for enhancing the stability and bioavailability of TPs. We reviewed the preparation, performance, effects, and applications of different types of TPs nanocarriers. First, we introduced the preparation of different nanocarriers, including nanoparticles, nanoemulsions, nanomicelles, and nanolipids. Then, we discussed various applications of tea polyphenol-loaded nanocarriers in functional ingredient delivery, food quality improvement, and active food packaging. Finally, the challenges and future development directions of TPs nanocarriers were elucidated. In conclusion, a nano-strategy may be the &ldquo;key&rdquo; to break the application barriers of TPs. Therefore, the use of nano-strategies for the safe, stable, and efficient release of TPs is the direction of future research.