Impact of the Incorporation of Nano-Sized Cellulose Formate on the End Quality of Polylactic Acid Composite Film
Polylactic acid (PLA) films with good sustainable and biodegradable properties have been increasingly explored recently, while the poor mechanical property of PLA limits its further application. Herein, three kinds of nano-sized cellulose formate (NCF: cellulose nanofibril (CNF), cellulose nanocrystal (CNC), and regenerated cellulose formate (CF)) with different properties were fabricated via a one-step formic acid (FA) hydrolysis of tobacco stalk, and the influence of the properties of NCF with different morphologies, crystallinity index (CrI), and degree of substitution (DS) on the end quality of PLA composite film was systematically compared. Results showed that the PLA/CNC film showed the highest increase (106%) of tensile strength compared to the CNF- and CF-based films, which was induced by the rod-like CNC with higher CrI. PLA/CF film showed the largest increase (50%) of elongation at the break and more even surface, which was due to the stronger interfacial interaction between PLA and the CF with higher DS. Moreover, the degradation property of PLA/CNF film was better than that of other composite films. This fundamental study was very beneficial for the development of high-quality, sustainable packaging as an alternative to petroleum-based products.