Utilisation of Carp Skin Post-Production Waste in Binary Films Based on Furcellaran and Chitosan to Obtain Packaging Materials for Storing Blueberries
The aim of the study was to develop and characterise an innovative three-component biopolymer film based on chitosan (CHIT), furcellaran (FUR) and a gelatin hydrolysate from carp skins (Cyprinus carpio) (HGEL). The structure and morphology were characterised using the Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) and atomic force microscopy (AFM). The FT-IR test showed no changes in the matrix after the addition of HGEL, which indicates that the film components were compatible. Based on the obtained AFM results, it was found that the addition of HGEL caused the formation of grooves and cracks on the surface of the film (reduction by ~21%). The addition of HGEL improved the antioxidant activity of the film (improvement by up to 2.318% and 444% of DPPH and FRAP power, respectively). Due to their properties, the tested films were used as active materials in the preservation of American blueberries. In the active films, the blueberries lost mass quickly compared to the synthetic film and were characterised by higher phenol content. The results obtained in this study create the opportunity to use the designed CHIT&ndash;FUR films in developing biodegradable packaging materials for food protection, but it is necessary to test their effectiveness on other food products.