Multilayer Films Based on Poly(lactic acid)/Gelatin Supplemented with Cellulose Nanocrystals and Antioxidant Extract from Almond Shell By-Product and Its Application on Hass Avocado Preservation
In this work, poly(lactic acid) (PLA)/gelatin/PLA multilayer films supplemented with cellulose nanocrystals and antioxidant extract from almond shell (AS) by-products were developed by solvent casting technique for active food packaging. The almond shell antioxidant extract (ASE) was obtained by microwave-assisted extraction, while cellulose nanocrystals (CNCs) were extracted from AS by a sequential process of alkalization, acetylation and acid hydrolysis. Four formulations were obtained by adding 0 (control), 6 wt.% of ASE (FG/ASE), 4.5 wt.% of CNCs (FG/CNC) and 6 wt.% + 4.5 wt.% of ASE + CNCs, respectively, (FG/ASE + CNC) into fish gelatin (FG). PLA/FG/PLA multilayer films were prepared by stacking two outer PLA layers into a middle FG film. A surface modification of PLA by air atmospheric plasma treatment was optimized before multilayer development to improve PLA adhesion. Complete characterization of the multilayers underlined the FG/ASE + CNC formulation as a promising active reinforced packaging system for food preservation, with low values of transparency, lightness and whiteness index. A good adhesion and homogeneity of the multilayer system was obtained by SEM, and they also demonstrated low oxygen permeability (40.87 ± 5.20 cm3 mm m?2 day) and solubility (39.19 ± 0.16%) values, while mechanical properties were comparable with commercial plastic films. The developed multilayer films were applied to Hass avocado preservation. The initial degradation temperature (Tini), DSC parameters and in vitro antioxidant capacity of the films were in accordance with the low peroxide and anisidine values obtained from avocado pulp after packaging for 14 days at 4 °C. The developed PLA/FG/PLA films supplemented with 6 wt.% ASE+ 4.5 wt.% CNCs may be potential bioactive packaging systems for fat food preservation.