Biosynthesis of Silver Nanoparticles Using Stenocereus queretaroensis Fruit Peel Extract: Study of Antimicrobial Activity
The synthesis and application of nanomaterials as antioxidants and cytotoxic agents has increased in recent years. Biological methods go beyond the chemical and physical synthesis that is expensive and not friendly to the environment. Foodborne pathogens and microorganisms causing candidiasis are responsible of 5–10% hospitalized patients. The nutritional properties of the fruit called pitaya, from the Stenocereus queretaroensis species, have been little explored. Therefore, in this study the phytochemical composition of S. queretaroensis peel was evaluated and silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) were synthesized biologically in an environmentally friendly way by S. queretaroensis peel aqueous extract that contains phytochemicals capable of reducing silver nitrate. The antimicrobial activity of the AgNPs was tested by determining the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC), minimal bactericidal concentration (MBC) and time-kill kinetics. AgNPs were characterized visually, by UV-visible spectroscopy and TEM. FTIR spectroscopy identified metabolites responsible for the AgNPs formation. AgNPs showed potent antimicrobial activity against gram-negative and gram-positive bacteria, against fungi, and a methicillin-resistant strain of S. aureus. MIC and MBC values were as low as 0.078 and 0.156 ?g/mL using AgNPs biosynthesized by S. queretaroensis fruit peel and the time kill assay started a log reduction in CFU/mL at 1 × MIC and 2 × MIC. S. queretaroensis-mediated AgNPs could be the basis for the formulation of biofilms for packaging products or as disinfectants for use on different surfaces.
Publication date: 12/08/2021
Author: Eduardo Padilla-Camberos
Reference: doi: 10.3390/ma14164543