Lignin Nanoparticles and Their Nanocomposites
Lignin nanomaterials have emerged as a promising alternative to fossil-based chemicals and products for some potential added-value applications, which benefits from their structural diversity and biodegradability. This review elucidates a perspective in recent research on nanolignins and their nanocomposites. It summarizes the different nanolignin preparation methods, emphasizing anti-solvent precipitation, self-assembly and interfacial crosslinking. Also described are the preparation of various nanocomposites by the chemical modification of nanolignin and compounds with inorganic materials or polymers. Additionally, advances in numerous potential high-value applications, such as use in food packaging, biomedical, chemical engineering and biorefineries, are described.