Advantages and prospective challenges of nanotechnology applications in fish cultures: a comparative review
Applications of nanotechnology in fish cultures have participated in getting over various difficulties that hinder fish productivity. They can achieve growth performance after adding some important minerals and vitamins in the form of nano-feed supplements like selenium, zinc, iron, and vitamin C. Also, they have an important role in reproduction, and fish medicine as antimicrobial, drug delivery, nano-vaccination, and rapid disease diagnosis. Moreover, their roles in water remediation and purification, and fish packaging are documented. On the other hand, some nanoparticles exhibit toxic effects on living organisms, which return to their tiny size, high reactivity, and permeability. They can alter many physiological functions and cause cytotoxicity, DNA damage, and histopathological changes. Also, nanotechnology applications cause new secondary pollutants to be introduced into the environment that can negatively affect fish health and the surrounding living organisms. So, in spite of the promising applications of nanotechnology to fulfill high growth performance and pathogen-free fish, there are a lot of debates about the potential toxicity of nanomaterials, their reactivity with the surrounding environment, and bioaccumulation. The present review aims to elucidate and discuss various advantages and challenges of nanotechnology applications in fish cultures. Also, it points to green nanotechnology as a promising alternative to chemical ones.