Preparation of Silver/Chitosan Nanofluids Using Selected Plant Extracts: Characterization and Antimicrobial Studies Against Gram-Positive and Gram-Negative Bacteria
Chitosan/silver nanofluids were prepared using Phoenix dactylifera (DPLE) or Rumex vesicarius (HEL) extracts as the reducing agent, characterized using Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), ultraviolet&ndash;visible (UV-vis), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and transmission electron microscope (TEM). The antimicrobial effect of the nanofluids against Gram positive, Bacillus licheniformis, Staphylococcus haemolyticus, Bacillus cereus, and Micrococcus luteus, and Gram-negative Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Pseudomonas citronellolis, and Escherichia coli bacteria has been studied. The nanoparticles were polydispersed in the chitosan matrix and are highly stable. The zeta potential of the silver nanoparticles in DPLE- and HEL-mediated composites is +46 mV and +56 mV, respectively. The FTIR results reveal that the free carboxylate groups in the plant biomaterial took part in stabilization process. HEL is a stronger reducing agent than DPLE and nanoparticles generated with HEL are smaller (8.0&ndash;36 nm) than those produced with DPLE (10&ndash;43 nm). DPLE- and HEL-mediated composites effectively inhibit the growth of the studied bacteria but HEL-mediated composite exhibited higher effect. The higher antimicrobial activity of HEL-mediated composite is linked to the smaller nanoparticles. The foregoing results indicate that HEL extract can be used in the green production of potential antimicrobial chitosan/silver nanofluids for biomedical and packaging applications.