Fabrication of ??carrageenan and whey protein isolate?based films reinforced with nanocellulose: optimization via RSM
The aim of this study was to prepare nanocomposite films composed of whey protein isolate (W) and carrageenan (C) with nanocellulose (N) for food packaging applications. Response surface methodology was applied to investigate the effect of W concentration (v/v, 0–100%), glycerol/sorbitol (G/S) ratio (0–1), and N concentration (w/w, 0–5%) on the physicomechanical properties of film samples. Higher W and N contents and lower G/S ratios showed positive effect on rigidity of film samples, while introducing high concentration of N increased the water vapor permeability values with increasing plasticizer and C concentration. The highest water uptake values were observed in C based films, while a higher C content resulted in lower opacity values. The addition of nanocellulose into whey protein and carrageenan blend films in the presence of a plasticizer mixture improved the suitability of selected biopolymers for food packaging applications when compared to their neat films. © 2020 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J. Appl. Polym. Sci. 2020, 137, 48902.