Influence of Nano Titanium Dioxide and Clove Oil on Chitosan–Starch Film Characteristics
The combined effects of nano titanium dioxide (TiO2-N) and clove oil (CO) on the physico-chemical, biological and structural properties of chitosan (CH)/starch (ST) films were investigated by using a solvent casting method. Results indicated that the incorporation of TiO2-N could improve the compactness of the film, increase the tensile strength (TS) and antioxidant activity, and decrease the water vapour permeability (WVP). As may be expected, the incorporation of CO into the film matrix decreased TS but increased the hydrophobicity as well as water vapour barrier antimicrobial and antioxidant properties. Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) data supported intermolecular interactions between TiO2-N, CO and the film matrix. Use of a scanning electron microscope (SEM) showed that TiO2-N and CO were well dispersed and emulsified in the film network. Thermogravimetric (TG) and derivative thermogravimetric (DTG) curves demonstrated that TiO2-N and CO were well embedded in the film matrix, hence this blend film system could provide new formulation options for food packaging materials in the future.