Biochar derived carbonaceous material for various environmental applications: Systematic review
Biochar is the solid material produced from the carbonization of organic feedstock biomass. This material has several unique characteristics such as greater carbon content, good electrical conductivity, high stability and large surface area, which can be applied in several research areas such as generation of power and wastewater treatment. In connection with this, recently, the investigations on biochar significantly focus on the removal of toxic heavy metals since the biochar material is easily available and environmentally friendly. According to an environmental analytical device, biochar-derived carbonaceous material has been additionally applied to the synthesis of an effective, sensitive, and low-cost electrochemical sensor. Biochar with an assessment of electrochemical properties has engaged with different redox reactions in water. In this survey, electrochemical ways of behaving of biochar in light of the electrochemical structures were analytically compiled as well as the impact from biomass sources and manufacturing process including carbonization strategies, pre-treatment/changed techniques. This review emphasizes the various synthesis methods of biochar form organic feedstock, properties and different modulations of biochar for the bioremediation of heavy metals. This review study emphasizes the utilization of biochar as sensing platform and supercapacitor for electrode fabrication in electrochemical biosensor to enhance the remediation of toxic contaminants from water streams and by switching the less ecological traditional materials. Brief information on the techniques employed for packaging biochar as carbon electrode is summarized. Scope in the aspect of environmental concern of biochar, future challenges and prospects are proposed in detail.