Development and Characterization of Chitosan and Porphyran Based Composite Edible Films Containing Ginger Essential Oil
Recent research shows the growing interest in the development of composite edible films (EFs) by using multiple biopolymers for the substantial improvement in the shelf life and quality of food products, via preventing oxidation among other benefits. In the present work, EFs based on chitosan (CS) and porphyran (POR) loaded with ginger essential oil (GEO) have been developed to study the effect of GEO, glycerol (Gly), and POR on the film structure as well as physical and antioxidant properties. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) results showed the level of crystallinity and electrostatic interactions between CS, POR, Gly, and GEO. It was found that electrostatic interactions between CS and POR and the incorporation of GEO substantially improved barrier, thermal, optical, and mechanical properties and reduced the moisture content, swelling index, and thickness values. The color values of the S5 film altered apparently with a shift towards yellowness. SEM micrographs of the composite CS-POR-GEO film (S5) showed improved morphological attributes such as more uniformity and homogeneous structure than other films (S1&ndash;S4). Results obtained from total phenolic content assay suggested the presence of high phenolic components (5.97 &plusmn; 0.01) mg of GAE/g in GEO. Further, findings obtained from antioxidant assays revealed that the addition of GEO and POR significantly increased the antioxidant effects of CS films. All these findings suggested that GEO loaded CS-POR based films showed better physical and chemical properties with a significant improvement in antioxidant potential and thus can be used as a potential packaging material in the food industry.