Application of Chitosan-Lignosulfonate Composite Coating Film in Grape Preservation and Study on the Difference in Metabolites in Fruit Wine
In order to solve the global problem of fruit rotting due to microbial infection and water loss after harvest, which leads to a large amount of food waste, this experiment uses degradable biological composite coating to prolong the preservation period of grapes. Chitosan (CH) and Lignosulfonate (LS) were used as Bio-based film materials, CH films, 1% CH/LS films and 2% CH/LS biomass composite films were synthesized by the classical casting method and applied to grape preservation packaging. Its preservation effect was tested by grape spoilage rate, water loss rate, hardness, soluble solids, titratable acid, and compared with plastic packaging material PE film. At the same time, 1H NMR technology combined with pattern recognition analysis (PCA) and partial least squares discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) was used to determine the nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) of Cabernet Sauvignon, Chardonnay and Italian Riesling wines from the eastern foothills of Helan Mountain to explore the differences in metabolites of wine. The results of preservation showed that the grapes quality of CH films and 2% CH/LS coating package is better than the control group, the decay rates decreased from 37.71% to 21.63% and 18.36%, respectively, the hardness increased from 6.83 to 10.4 and 12.78 and the soluble solids increased from 2.1 in the control group to 3.0 and 3.2. In terms of wine metabolites, there are similar types of metabolites between cabernet Sauvignon dry red wine and Chardonnay and Italian Riesling dry white wine, but there are significant differences in content. The study found that 2% CH/LS coating package could not only reduce the spoilage rate of grapes, inhibit the consumption of soluble solids and titratable acids, but also effectively extend the shelf life of grapes by 6 days.