Phytochemical Profile, Biological Properties, and Food Applications of the Medicinal Plant Syzygium cumini
Syzygium cumini, locally known as Jamun in Asia, is a fruit-bearing crop belonging to the Myrtaceae family. This study aims to summarize the most recent literature related to botany, traditional applications, phytochemical ingredients, pharmacological activities, nutrition, and potential food applications of S. cumini. Traditionally, S. cumini has been utilized to combat diabetes and dysentery, and it is given to females with a history of abortions. Anatomical parts of S. cumini exhibit therapeutic potentials including antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, analgesic, antipyretic, antimalarial, anticancer, and antidiabetic activities attributed to the presence of various primary and secondary metabolites such as carbohydrates, proteins, amino acids, alkaloids, flavonoids (i.e., quercetin, myricetin, kaempferol), phenolic acids (gallic acid, caffeic acid, ellagic acid) and anthocyanins (delphinidin-3,5-O-diglucoside, petunidin-3,5-O-diglucoside, malvidin-3,5-O-diglucoside). Different fruit parts of S. cumini have been employed to enhance the nutritional and overall quality of jams, jellies, wines, and fermented products. Today, S. cumini is also used in edible films. So, we believe that S. cumini&rsquo;s anatomical parts, extracts, and isolated compounds can be used in the food industry with applications in food packaging and as food additives. Future research should focus on the isolation and purification of compounds from S. cumini to treat various disorders. More importantly, clinical trials are required to develop low-cost medications with a low therapeutic index.